|From Lee Russell- Tour of Duty military advisor
"Doc Hock" is a Third Season character, created after I was no longer working for the show. However I do have some comments on him.
First, he can't be an "official" Conscientious Objector. You could NOT "self-declare" CO status. The ONLY people who got CO status were those with a RELIGIOUS objection to taking human life. And only a few, specific, established religions, like the Quakers and Mennonites, were recognized for this purpose. (Hockenbury is a Presbyterian.) You also could not convert to the religion when you got your draft notice. You would have to prove to your Draft Board, more or less, that you were raised in the religion, and were a practicing member of the Church all this time.
I might suppose what happened was that, sometime in his training, Hockenbury refused to carry out some weapons training. For this, he received a Summary Courts-Martial. (For various reasons, I expect this was during the one day pistol training he was supposed to receive near the end of his medical training.) He would have been charged under Article 92 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice: Disobeying a Lawful Order. Records of this, including any statements he made at the time, would go in his 201 (Personnel) File. His punishment might have been minor, restriction to quarters, a fine, extra duty. However, it may not have interfered with his graduation from Medical Training. (Being treated as though he'd just gone and gotten drunk instead of showing up for training.)
HOWEVER, anytime he joins a new unit, everyone in charge of him gets to look at his 201 File, and any kind of punitive action would draw immediate attention.
This also explains various matters in the show, such as his annoyance [with the] "conscientious objector crap in my file" when he joins the unit. He's been teased about it before. Also why in "War is a Contact Sport", there is the expectation that Doc knows how to use an M-16 in the first place.
He also presumes on his new commander by saying his MOS does not "require" him to carry a weapon. In fact he is supposed to carry a .45 pistol for self-protection, and to protect his patients. However few medics had any confidence, with a few hours training, that they could hit anything with the pistol and thought an equivalent weight of medical supplies a better trade-off. Probably most commanders could care less. It would be a personal decision. (NOT, of course, in Special Operations, which operated in tiny 4-12 man teams and every man was required to fight.)